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Optimization Ratio of Mixed Metal Soaps and Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) on Making Grease

Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) has a high potential to be utilized as crude material for oleochemical items, one of them is for oil. This is on the grounds that the fatty acid synthesis contained in PFAD isn’t vastly different from the fatty acid piece contained in palm oil. The reason for this research is to consider the formularization of oil from PFAD which has characteristics approaching grease. The technique utilized in the assembling of Oil comprises of two stages. The initial step is the cycle for setting up a blend of a metal cleanser (Na-Ca) with predetermined variations and analyzing metal compound cleansers. The subsequent advance is the production of oil from a blend of metal cleansers (Na-Ca) and PFAD and analyzing the item. Based on the research, the ideal solids got as per the SNI standard is in creation A2: B1, A2 is the proportion of NaOH: Ca (OH)2 = 80%: 20% and B1 is PFAD proportion: metal cleanser = 10%: 90% with density analysis 1.108 g/ml, liquefying point 1100C, titrant esteem 92 and NLGI 6 consistency. 


Use of palm oil in the assembling of strong ointments subs for base oil and thickening parts. Palm oil is one of the options, in any case, direct utilization of palm oil as an ointment remains cause issues specifically the high thickness of palm oil prompts defective oil. The requirement for lubricating oil produced using synthetic materials got from non-sustainable energy sources is expanding, so we should promptly look for alternative ingredients as Lubricants. The sort of palm oil utilized is PFAD. PFAD is a by-product of the process of cleaning unrefined palm oil. Until now, the utilization of PFAD is restricted, which is utilized as a crude material for making inferior quality cleansers. One kind of vegetable oil that has been surveyed as a base for lubricants and lubricating oil is Castor oil. The attributes of PFAD are impacted by three basic parameters namely boiling point, specific heat, and latent heat from fatty acids.

Strong oil is a strong or semi-strong blend of oils with thickener which serves to Decrease erosion between two surfaces that meet or rub against one another.  Good solid lubricating properties are decreasing erosion, preventing corrosion, as protection from soil or water, preventing leakage, consistency, and constant structure, not solidifying at low temperatures, properties appropriate for elastomeric protection, and having a specific degree of toxin resistance. In view of past research, the examination group has made oil from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) utilizing Na and Li metal cleanser. The ideal proportion got at the organization of 95:5 for sodium metal and 35:65 for lithium metal, yet the consequences of the entrance test and dissolving point are as yet not ideal whenever applied to vehicles or machines. 

Added substances are an extra fixing that capacities as a nutrient for solid lubricants whose uses include, as an anti-corrosion, as anti-wear, as an anti-oxidant, keeping up a thick ointment consistency. The strong ointment is made out of a few parts, in particular, fundamental oil (base oil), thickener, added substances. As per the most recent theory, base thickener and oil consistently exist together on the surface of the friction and don’t justify mainstream hypotheses that see thickener just as a wipe that deliveries base oil to the contact surface.

The oil is a material that serves to ensure a few working motor segments, so oil positively affects devices and machines, which can prevent wear due to friction between parts with one other segment. Likewise, oil can also minimize maintenance and fix expenses of tools and hardware. Expanded improvement in the mechanical and transportation segments as of now builds the utilization of oil fundamentally. This implies a lot of oil is expected to address utilization issues in the mechanical and transportation divisions. By and large, numerous oils found on the market are produced from petroleum or petroleum base oil. With the consumption of oil holds, less essential crude materials for oil can address Indonesia’s issues. This is anticipated to prompt a lack of oil in the market or more costly oil because of imports from abroad. 

Vegetable oil is one of the rough materials that can be used as crucial material for making elective balm for machines. The subordinates of palm oil, especially glycerol and oleic acid have the potential to be made as a fabricated oil feedstock. What’s more, oil can likewise be blended from fatty acid esters got from vegetable oils. By and large, oil is blended from fatty acid esters with carbon chains in the above range, consequently having the chance to be created as crude materials for lubricating oils. 

Oil development studies have not been directed in Indonesia and data is as yet restricted. Subsequently, this investigation endeavors to grow further the innovation of assembling oil to evaluate the degree to which the capability of palm oil and its subsidiary items can be created as oil. Palm oil subordinate items to be specific Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is a result of cooking oil production line, where its usage is as yet restricted. Furthermore, PFAD is just utilized as a crude material of cleanser producer with bad quality. Then, PFAD has a high potential for use as a crude material for oleochemical items, one of which is oil. This is on the grounds that the fatty acid structure contained in PFAD isn’t vastly different from the fatty acid creation contained in palm oil. 

Material and Methods 

1. Materials 

Sodium hydroxide, stearic acid, phenol, glycerol, and calcium hydroxide can be bought from Tradeasia International. The entirety of the synthetic substances was a specialized evaluation and was utilized with no cleaning. The items were assessed by the assurance of free base substance and unsaponifiable matter on a metal cleanser. The outcome acquired is the thickness test, titrant, dissolving point, and Public Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) number. 

2. Factors and Process Conditions of Preparation of blended metal cleansers 

The elements of blended metal cleanser (Na-Ca) are as a thickener in the oil which is delivered from the response among PFAD and the bases of NaOH and Ca(OH)2. Made by warmed up PFAD until softening at 70°C then included NaOH and Ca(OH)2 4N arrangement and mixed at 650 rpm for 30 minutes. The proportion among NaOH and Ca (OH)2 in blended metals is 90:10 (A1) and 80:20 (A2). The blended metal cleanser was assessed by free base substance and non-soaped fixings. 

3. Readiness of Mixed sodium-calcium cleansers 

PFAD (100 g) is warmed to a temperature of 70 °C, mixed ceaselessly at a speed of 650 rpm for 30 minutes. The PDAF  solution was slowly blended and included a blend of 4N sodium and calcium solution as per varieties in the assembling of metal cleansers, for example, the proportion among NaOH and Ca(OH)2 in blended metals is 90:10 (A1) and 80:20 (A2). 

4. Examination of Free Base Content and unsaponifiable issue 

Examination of the free base substance was completed by including 100 ml of 95% liquor into 5 grams of test and warmed for 30 minutes at that point titrated with 0.5N HCl. While the investigation of the non-soaped fixings is done by placing in 50 ml of alcoholic KOH 0.5N into a free base analysis solution, what’s more, warmed for 60 minutes, at that point titrated with 0.5N HCl with the Phenolphthalein pointer.  

5. Grease Production 

Grease is made by warming PFAD up to 70 °C in the reactor at that point included blended metal cleanser as a thickener as per the predetermined variations. The proportion among PFAD and blended metal cleansers is 10:90 (B1) and 20:20 (B2). From that point onward, 5 ml of stearic acid, glycerin, and phenol were added to each variation solution and afterward mixed at a speed of 650 rpm for 4 hours at a temperature of 120 °C until homogeneous. 

6. Analyzing of Grease 

The subsequent Grease items were dissected off the thickness, liquefying point, infiltration, and NLGI examination boundaries. The liquefying point and NLGI infiltration investigation dependent on ASTM-D-566 and ASTM-D-217, individually.


Test Result Characteristics of Grease 

Composition (%) (Metal Soap: PFAD)

Density (gr/ml ) 

Titrant 25 ºC ASTM D 217

Dropping point ASTM D566

NLGI Grade ASTM D217

A1: B1 





A1 : B2 





A1 : B3 





A2 : B1 





A2 : B2 





A2 : B3 





Description :A = Ratio NaOH : Ca(OH)2 (%); B = Ratio Metal Soap : PFAD (%); A1 : B1 = (90 : 10) ; (90 : 10); A1 : B2 = (90 : 10) ; (80 : 20); A1 : B3 = (90 : 10) ; (70 : 30); A2 : B1 = (80 : 20) ; (90 : 10); A2 : B2 = (80 : 20) ; (80 : 20); A2 : B3 = (80 : 20) ; (70 : 30) 

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